Background and Aims
Patients with colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Current guidelines recommend endoscopic surveillance, yet epidemiological studies show poor compliance. The aims of our study were to analyse adherence to endoscopic surveillance, its impact on advanced colorectal lesions, and risk factors of non-adherence.
A retrospective multicentre study of IBD patients with criteria for CRC surveillance, diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 and followed up to 2020, was performed. Following European guidelines, patients were stratified into risk groups and adherence was considered when surveillance was performed according to the recommendations (±1 year). Cox-proportional regression analyses were used to compare the risk of lesions. p-values below 0.05 were considered significant.
A total of 1031 patients (732 ulcerative colitis, 259 Crohn’s disease and 40 indeterminate colitis; mean age of 36 ± 15 years) were recruited from 25 Spanish centres. Endoscopic screening was performed in 86% of cases. Adherence to guidelines was 27% (95% confidence interval, CI = 24–29). Advanced lesions and CRC were detected in 38 (4%) and 7 (0.7%) patients respectively. Adherence was associated with increased detection of advanced lesions (HR = 3.59; 95% CI = 1.3–10.1; p = 0.016). Risk of delay or non-performance of endoscopic follow-up was higher as risk groups increased (OR = 3.524; 95% CI = 2.462–5.044; p < 0.001 and OR = 4.291; 95%CI = 2.409–7.644; p < 0.001 for intermediate- and high- vs low-risk groups).
Adherence to endoscopic surveillance allows earlier detection of advanced lesions but is low. Groups at higher risk of CRC are associated with lower adherence.
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