El grupo de trabajo de páncreas y vías biliares agrupa a los socios de AEG interesados en la fisiología y las enfermedades del páncreas exocrino, de la vesícula y de la vía biliar.
El grupo de trabajo de páncreas y vías biliares agrupa a los socios de AEG interesados en la fisiología y las enfermedades del páncreas exocrino, de la vesícula y de la vía biliar. El grupo mantiene lazos estrechos con la Asociación Española de Pancreatología (AESPANC).
El grupo de páncreas y vía biliar de AEG ha promovido estudios colaborativos nacionales e internacionales publicados en revista de alto impacto como el estudio ATLANTIS (Annals of Surgery 2019), PAN-PROMISE (Gut 2021), EPIPANCREAS (Mol Biol Rep, 2020), está promoviendo ensayos clínicos multicéntricos nacionales como SIMBA y OSOPOLAR, e internacionales como WATERFALL , así como REGISTROS NACIONALES SOBRE PANCREATITIS CRÓNICA. Actualmente está desarrollando las guías íbero-americanas de pancreatitis aguda junto a AESPANC, SPG y OPGE y un Máster en enfermedades pancreáticas junto a AESPANC.
La coordinadora actual es Emma Martínez Moneo. Los coordinadores previos fueron Fernando Carballo (2001-2007), Juan Martínez (2007-2011), Enrique de Madaria (2011-2015) y Eva Vaquero (2015-2019).
Cuando solicitas ser socio de AEG elige este grupo de trabajo en el formulario. Si ya eres socio de AEG, sólo has de entrar en al grupo de páncreas y vía biliar y hacer click en el icono de “inscríbete a este grupo”
Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) in acute pancreatitis (AP) as an endpoint centred on the patient.
Design A PROM instrument (PAtieNt-rePoRted OutcoMe scale in acute pancreatItis, an international proSpEctive cohort study, PAN-PROMISE scale) was designed based on the opinion of patients, professionals and an expert panel. The scale was validated in an international multicentre prospective cohort study, describing the severity of AP and quality of life at 15 days after discharge as the main variables for validation. The COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) methodology was applied. Both the design and validation stages considered the content and face validity of this new instrument; the metric properties of the different items, reliability (reproducibility and internal consistence), the construct, structural and criterion validity, responsiveness and interpretability of this scale.
Results PAN-PROMISE consists of a seven-item scale based on the symptoms that cause the most discomfort and concern to patients with AP. The validation cohort involved 15 countries, 524 patients. The intensity of symptoms changed from higher values during the first 24 hours to lower values at discharge and 15 days thereafter. Items converged into a unidimensional ordinal scale with good fit indices. Internal consistency and split-half reliability at discharge were adequate. Reproducibility was confirmed using test–retest reliability and comparing the PAN-PROMISE score at discharge and 15 days after discharge. Evidence is also provided for the convergent-discriminant and empirical validity of the scale.
Conclusion The PAN-PROMISE scale is a useful tool to be used as an endpoint in clinical trials, and to quantify patient well-being during the hospital admission and follow-up.
Case reports and retrospective cohort studies have reported an association between acute pancreatitis and COVID-19. As SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19) receptors are expressed in the pancreas and endothelial damage can occur, this association is plausible. However, this hypothesis has many biases and needs further investigation.
CA19-9 serum has been suggested as a marker of unresectability but different cut-off levels have been published. A cut-off of 500 U/ml is currently considered in an international consensus as biological criteria of borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. To evaluate whether serum CA19-9 threshold of 500 U/ml could be adequate predictor of resectability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multicenter, observational, prospective study performed in Spain including 203 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 43 (21.2%) cases were resectable and 160 (78.8%) unresectable. Among the 176 preoperative CA19-9 available values, 98 (58.3%) were ≤ 500 U/ml and 73 (42.7%) > 500 U/ml. Resectability rate in those patients with CA19-9 ≤ 500 U/ml was 60% while it was found to be 18% when CA19-9 > 500 U/ml. Statistical model to predict resectability based on CA19-9 provide an AUC of 0.6618 (95% CI 0.53-0.83) when only CA19-9 values > 500 U/ml are studied. Serum levels of CA19-9 higher than 500 U/ml are indicative of unresectable disease, however reduced sensitivity and specificity lead to a limited clinical applicability for resectability.
Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis (PEP) is a frequent complication of this endoscopic procedure. Chronic statin intake has been linked to lower incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Periprocedural rectal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is protective against PEP, but the role of chronic acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether statins and chronic ASA intake are associated with lower risk of PEP.
An international, multicenter, prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients undergoing ERCP in seven European centers were included. Patients were followed-up to detect those with PEP. Multivariate analysis by means of binary logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated.
A total of 1150 patients were included, and 70 (6.1%) patients developed PEP. Among statins users, 8.1% developed PEP vs. 5.4% among non-users (P = 0.09). Multivariate analysis showed no association between statin use and PEP incidence (aOR 1.68 (95% CI 0.94–2.99, P = 0.08)). Statin use had no effect on severity of PEP, being mild in 92.0% of statin users vs. 82.2% in non-statin users (P = 0.31). Chronic ASA use was not associated with PEP either (aOR 1.02 (95% CI 0.49–2.13), P = 0.96). Abuse of alcohol and previous endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy were protective factors against PEP, while >1 pancreatic guidewire passage, normal bilirubin values, and duration of the procedure >20 minutes, were risk factors.
The use of statins or ASA is not associated with a lower risk or a milder course of PEP.
The overall objective of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related digestive disease in adults and children. IgG4-related digestive disease can be diagnosed only with a comprehensive work-up that includes histology, organ morphology at imaging, serology, search for other organ involvement, and response to glucocorticoid treatment. Indications for treatment are symptomatic patients with obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, posterior pancreatic pain, and involvement of extra-pancreatic digestive organs, including IgG4-related cholangitis. Treatment with glucocorticoids should be weight-based and initiated at a dose of 0.6-0.8 mg/kg body weight/day orally (typical starting dose 30-40 mg/day prednisone equivalent) for 1 month to induce remission and then be tapered within two additional months. Response to initial treatment should be assessed at week 2-4 with clinical, biochemical and morphological markers. Maintenance treatment with glucocorticoids should be considered in multi-organ disease or history of relapse. If there is no change in disease activity and burden within 3 months, the diagnosis should be reconsidered. If the disease relapsed during the 3 months of treatment, immunosuppressive drugs should be added.
Background: The most frequent complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is post-ERCP acute pancreatitis (PEP). Statin consumption seems to lower the incidence of acute pancreatitis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the use of statins and the incidence of PEP.
Methods: multicenter (4 Spanish tertiary-level public hospitals) retrospective cohort study. Adult patients undergoing an ERCP were included in the study. We excluded patients with chronic pancreatitis, with ongoing acute pancreatitis and those who developed other complications after ERCP. Patients were classified into 2 groups: those under statin treatment (group S) and controls (group C). A multivariate analysis was performed (binary logistic regression) including age, center, female gender, previous pancreatitis, suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, difficult cannulation (>10 min), >1 pancreatic guidewire passages, pancreatic injection, pancreatic stenting and presence of choledocholitiasis.
Results: seven hundred and two patients were included, median age 74 (62-82 years), 330 (47%) females, 223 (32%) in group S. Thirty-five (5%) patients developed PEP, 6 (3%) in group S and 29 (6%) in group C. Statin use was not associated with a lower frequency of PEP in univariate analysis, OR 0.429 (95% confidence interval 0.176-1.05, p = 0.06) or in multivariate analysis, adjusted OR 0.5 (0.19-1.32), p = 0.16. Statin use had no effect on severity of PEP, being mild in 50% vs 78.6% in non-statin users, p = 0.306.
Conclusions: the chronic use of statins was not associated with a decreased risk of PEP or a milder course of disease in our sample of patients.
Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex inflammatory disease with remarkably impaired quality of life and permanent damage of the pancreas. This paper is part of the international consensus guidelines on CP and presents the consensus on factors elevating the risk for CP.
Methods: An international working group with 20 experts on CP from the major pancreas societies (IAP, APA, JPS, and EPC) evaluated 14 statements generated from evidence on four questions deemed to be the most clinically relevant in CP. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the level of evidence available per statement. To determine the level of agreement, the working group voted on the 14 statements for strength of agreement, using a nine-point Likert scale in order to calculate Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient.
Results: Strong consensus and agreement were obtained for the following statements: Alcohol, smoking, and certain genetic alterations are risk factors for CP. Past history, family history, onset of symptoms, and life-style factors including alcohol intake and smoking history should be determined. Alcohol consumption dose-dependently elevates the risk of CP up to 4-fold. Ever smokers, even smoking less than a pack of cigarettes per day, have an increased risk for CP, as compared to never smokers.
Conclusions: Both genetic and environmental factors can markedly elevate the risk for CP. Therefore, health-promoting lifestyle education and in certain cases genetic counselling should be employed to reduce the incidence of CP.
Background/Objective: Evidence from basic and clinical studies suggests that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) might be relevant mediators of the development of complications in acute pancreatitis (AP). Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients with AP from regions in Spain with different patterns of dietary fat intake. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed with data from 1,655 patients with AP from a Spanish prospective cohort study and regional nutritional data from a Spanish cross-sectional study. Nutritional data considered in the study concern the total lipid consumption, detailing total saturated fatty acids, UFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) consumption derived from regional data and not from the patient prospective cohort. Two multivariable analysis models were used: (1) a model with the Charlson comorbidity index, sex, alcoholic etiology, and recurrent AP; (2) a model that included these variables plus obesity. Results: In multivariable analysis, patients from regions with high UFA intake had a significantly increased frequency of local complications, persistent organ failure (POF), mortality, and moderate-to-severe disease in the model without obesity and a higher frequency of POF in the model with obesity. Patients from regions with high MUFA intake had significantly more local complications and moderate-to-severe disease; this significance remained for moderate-to-severe disease when obesity was added to the model. Conclusions: Differences in dietary fat patterns could be associated with different outcomes in AP, and dietary fat patterns may be a pre-morbid factor that determines the severity of AP. UFAs, and particulary MUFAs, may influence the pathogenesis of the severity of AP.
Acute pancreatitis is a heterogeneous illness. Most patients experience a mild course of disease, but one third will develop local complications and/or organ failure associated with increased morbidity and risk of mortality. Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on typical epigastric pain, elevation of serum lipase or amylase levels, and/or characteristic findings on imaging. Personalised management is needed in patients with acute pancreatitis. Currently, analgesia, Ringer's lactate solution-based goal-directed fluid resuscitation and early oral refeeding providing enteral nutrition if not tolerated are the cornerstones for early management. Prophylactic antibiotics or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the absence of cholangitis are considered to be futile. Future clinical trials should address optimal fluid resuscitation, the early administration of anti-inflammatory drugs and the exact role of nutritional support in severe acute pancreatitis. Here, we present a patient case and review the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare and validate the different classifications of severity in acute pancreatitis (AP) and to investigate which characteristics of the disease are associated with worse outcomes.
Summary of background data: AP is a heterogeneous disease, ranging from uneventful cases to patients with considerable morbidity and high mortality rates. Severity classifications based on legitimate determinants of severity are important to correctly describe the course of disease.
Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study involving patients with AP from 23 hospitals in Spain. The Atlanta Classification (AC), Revised Atlanta Classification (RAC), and Determinant-based Classification (DBC) were compared. Binary logistic multivariate analysis was performed to investigate independent determinants of severity.
Results: A total of 1655 patients were included; 70 patients (4.2%) died. RAC and DBC were equally superior to AC for describing the clinical course of AP. Although any kind of organ failure was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, persistent organ failure (POF) was the most significant determinant of severity. All local complications were associated with worse outcomes. Infected pancreatic necrosis correlated with high morbidity, but in the presence of POF, it was not associated to higher mortality when compared with sterile necrotizing pancreatitis. Exacerbation of previous comorbidity was associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
Conclusion: The RAC and DBC both signify an advance in the description and differentiation of AP patients. Herein, we describe the complications of the disease independently associated to morbidity and mortality. Our findings are valuable not only when designing future studies on AP but also for the improvement of current classifications.
Background: There are few large prospective cohort studies evaluating predictors of outcomes in acute pancreatitis.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of age and co-morbid disease in predicting major outcomes in acute pancreatitis.
Methods: Data points were collected according to a predefined electronic data collection form. Acute pancreatitis and its complications were defined according to the revised Atlanta classification. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard regression and multiple logistic regression.
Results: From June 2013-February 2015, 1655 adult patients were recruited from 23 centres across Spain. Co-morbid disease, obesity, open surgical necrosectomy within 30 days, and pancreatic necrosis were independently associated with both 30-day mortality and persistent organ failure (p < 0.05 for all). Age was not associated with persistent organ failure, however the extreme of age (>85 years) was associated with mortality (p < 0.05). Co-morbid disease and obesity were not independently associated with a prolonged length of stay or other markers of morbidity on adjusted analysis (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Comorbidity and obesity are important determinates of mortality and persistent organ failure in acute pancreatitis, but in the absence of organ failure they do not appear to independently contribute to morbidity. This has important implications for severity classification and predictive models of severity in acute pancreatitis.
Evidence-based guidelines on the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) are lacking. This guideline is a joint initiative of the European Study Group on Cystic Tumours of the Pancreas, United European Gastroenterology, European Pancreatic Club, European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, European Digestive Surgery, and the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. It replaces the 2013 European consensus statement guidelines on PCN. European and non-European experts performed systematic reviews and used GRADE methodology to answer relevant clinical questions on nine topics (biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), serous cystic neoplasm, rare cysts, (neo)adjuvant treatment, and pathology). Recommendations include conservative management, relative and absolute indications for surgery. A conservative approach is recommended for asymptomatic MCN and IPMN measuring <40 mm without an enhancing nodule. Relative indications for surgery in IPMN include a main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter between 5 and 9.9 mm or a cyst diameter ≥40 mm. Absolute indications for surgery in IPMN, due to the high-risk of malignant transformation, include jaundice, an enhancing mural nodule >5 mm, and MPD diameter >10 mm. Lifelong follow-up of IPMN is recommended in patients who are fit for surgery. The European evidence-based guidelines on PCN aim to improve the diagnosis and management of PCN.
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