El grupo de trabajo de oncología de la Asociación Española de Gastroenterología (AEG) incluye a todos los socios y socias de AEG que comparten su interés por el conocimiento del cáncer gastrointestinal, incluyendo las formas hereditarias y de alto riesgo asociadas a estos tumores. La filosofía del grupo es promover la investigación colaborativa, impulsar las actividades formativas y fomentar la docencia relacionada con esta área de la especialidad de Aparato Digestivo.
El grupo de trabajo de oncología lo formamos todos los socios y socias de AEG que compartimos nuestro entusiasmo por el cáncer gastrointestinal y una motivación común por la investigación relacionada con el conocimiento estos tumores. Nuestro grupo mantiene lazos estrechos con otros grupos de AEG como el grupo EndoCAR, enfocado específicamente en potenciar el conocimiento de la endoscopia dirigida a poblaciones de alto riesgo de cáncer; y también el “grupo joven”; dirigido a promover la investigación y formación entre los futuros profesionales de nuestro país.
Este grupo fue fundado en 1999, gracias a la colaboración de los grupos de Oncología digestiva del Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (Antoni Castells), Hospital del Mar de Barcelona (Montserrat Andreu), Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol de Badalona (Xavier Llor) y Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (Rodrigo Jover). Entonces nació uno de los proyectos cooperativos más ambiciosos llevados a cabo en España en los últimos años, acuñado como estudio EPICOLON. Este proyecto fue el primer registro epidemiológico de cáncer colorrectal en España, en el cual colaboraron 25 centros hospitalarios. Gracias al mismo, se pudo caracterizar la incidencia del síndrome de Lynch y otras formas familiares de cáncer en nuestro país. Este ambicioso proyecto dio lugar a numerosas publicaciones en revistas de prestigio nacional e internacional.
El excelente crédito obtenido por esta primera iniciativa del Grupo de Oncología Gastrointestinal de la AEG nos animó a realizar el proyecto EPICOLON II, dirigido a profundizar en las bases moleculares de las formas hereditarias y familiares del CCR. Este segundo proyecto, en el que se ha colaborado con el Centro de Genotipado (CeGen) de Santiago de Compostela (Consorcio EPICOLON), ha sido un también un éxito y de él se han derivado importantes publicaciones de reconocimiento internacional.
En los años posteriores, el grupo de oncología ha diversificado el ámbito de sus estudios, siendo un ejemplo de la investigación colaborativa en España. Así lo avalan proyectos como el estudio COLONPREV, ensayo clínico prospectivo creado con el objetivo de comparar dos estrategias de cribado de cáncer colorrectal en población de riesgo medio, y cuyo análisis preliminar (resultados de la primera ronda en el año 2012) fue publicado en la prestigiosa revista New England Journal of Medicine. Este proyecto también ha dado lugar a decenas de estudios anidados que sin duda supondrán un enorme avance en el conocimiento del cáncer de colon y formas precursoras. Además de este proyecto, en las últimas décadas surgieron otros estudios colaborativos como ParCoFIT (cribado de cáncer colorrectal en el cáncer familiar), evaluación de los síndromes poliposicos (EPIPOLIP ) ,biomarcadores diagnósticos del cáncer colorrectal (EPICOLON III ), modelos predictivos en el diagnóstico del cáncer colorrectal (COLONPREDICT) y vigilancia tras resección de adenomas (SEGUICOL). Además, desde nuestro grupo se lidera un ensayo clínico de ámbito europeo (EPoS) que compara varias estrategias de vigilancia en pacientes con pólipos colorrectales. Actualmente, el grupo de oncología también mantiene proyectos colaborativos con el grupo EndoCAR(endoscopia avanzada para pacientes con alto riesgo de cáncer colorrectal) y la Sociedad Española de Endoscopia Digestiva (Qualiscopia ). En los últimos años, también ha empezado a impulsar el área de conocimiento de los tumores de estómago, gracias al estudio EPIGASTRIC, primer proyecto multicéntrico nacional dirigido a la caracterización clínica y molecular del cáncer gástrico.
La coordinadora actual es Sabela Carballal. Los coordinadores previos fueron Antoni Obrador (1999-2001), Montserrat Andreu (2002-2006), Xavier Bessa (2007-2011), Rodrigo Jover (2012), Francesc Balaguer (2013-2017) y Joaquín Cubiella (2017-2020).
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Background & aims: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers. However, a high incidence of postcolonoscopy CRC (PCCRC) has been reported. Colonoscopy is highly dependent on endoscopist skill and is subject to quality variability. We aimed to evaluate the impact of key colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and prevention of PCCRC in LS.
Methods: We conducted a multicenter study focused on LS carriers without previous CRC undergoing colonoscopy surveillance (n = 893). Incident colorectal neoplasia during surveillance and quality indicators of all colonoscopies were analyzed. We performed an emulated target trial comparing the results from the first and second surveillance colonoscopies to assess the effect of colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and PCCRC incidence. Risk analyses were conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model.
Results: The 10-year cumulative incidence of adenoma and PCCRC was 60.6% (95% CI, 55.5%-65.2%) and 7.9% (95% CI, 5.2%-10.6%), respectively. Adequate bowel preparation (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.06-4.3), complete colonoscopies (20% vs 0%; P = .01), and pan-chromoendoscopy use (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.15-3.95) were associated with significant improvement in adenoma detection. PCCRC risk was significantly lower when colonoscopies were performed during a time interval of less than every 3 years (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.97). We observed a consistent but not significant reduction in PCCRC risk for a previous complete examination (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-1.28), adequate bowel preparation (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.17-3.24), or previous use of high-definition colonoscopy (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.02-2.33).
Conclusions: Complete colonoscopies with adequate bowel preparation and chromoendoscopy use are associated with improved adenoma detection, while surveillance intervals of less than 3 years are associated with a reduction of PCCRC incidence. In LS, high-quality colonoscopy surveillance is of utmost importance for CRC prevention.
Keywords: Colonoscopy; Colonoscopy Quality; Colorectal Neoplasms; HNPCC; Hereditary Colorectal Cancer; Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer; Lynch Syndrome.
Copyright © 2022 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective: Implementation of faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) as a triage test in primary healthcare may improve the efficiency of referrals without missing cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to summarise the performance characteristics of FITs for CRC in symptomatic patients presenting to primary healthcare.
Design: We performed a systematic literature review of Medline and EMBASE databases from May 2018 to November 2020. Previous related systematic searches were also adapted to this aim and completed with reference screening. We identified studies performed on adult patients consulting for abdominal symptoms in primary care which reported data such that the FIT diagnostic performance parameters for CRC could be obtained. Bivariate models were used to synthesise available evidence. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the causes of heterogeneity.
Results: Twenty-three studies (69 536 participants) were included (CRC prevalence 0.3%-6.2%). Six studies (n=34 691) assessed FIT as rule in test (threshold of ≥150 µg Hb/g faeces) showing a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 57.8% to 69.9%) and a specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 91.2% to 97.2%). A threshold of 10 µg/g (15 studies; n=48 872) resulted in a sensitivity of 87.2% (95% CI 81.0% to 91.6%) and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI 79.4% to 88.3%) for CRC. At a 20 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (five studies; n=24 187) less than one additional CRC would be missed per 1000 patients investigated compared with 10 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (CRC prevalence 2%).
Conclusion: FIT is the test of choice to evaluate patients with new-onset lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary healthcare
Background and study aims: current guidelines recommend genetic counseling and intensive colonoscopy surveillance for patients with ≥10 colorectal adenomas based on scarce data. We investigated the prevalence of this condition in a FIT (fecal immunochemical test)-based colorectal (CRC) screening program and the incidence of metachronous lesions during follow-up.
Patients and methods: we retrospectively included all FIT-positive participants with ≥10 adenomas at index colonoscopy between 2010 and 2018. Surveillance colonoscopies (SVC) were collected until 2019. Patients with inherited syndromes, serrated polyposis syndrome, total colectomy or lacking surveillance data, were excluded. Cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia (AN) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Risk factors of metachronous AN were investigated by multivariable logistic-regression analysis.
Results: 215/9,582 (2.2%) participants had ≥10 adenomas. Germline genetic testing was performed in 92% of patients with ≥20 adenomas identifying 2 (3.3%) inherited syndromes. 3-year cumulative incidence of CRC and AN was 1%, and 16%, respectively. In 39 (24.2%) patients no polyps were found at first SVC. The presence of advanced adenoma was independently associated with a higher risk of AN at first SVC (OR: 3.91, 95% confident interval : 1.12-13.62; p=0.03). Beyond the first SVC, the risk of metachronous AN was lower.
Conclusions: the prevalence of ≥10 adenomas in a FIT-based CRC screening program is 2.2% and a small proportion of inherited syndromes are detected even amongst those with ≥ 20 adenomas. Low rate of post-colonoscopy CRC is observed and the risk of AN beyond the first SVC tends to progressively decrease throughout successive follow-up.
Background: Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare disease which can be associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). LS tumors are characterized by the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or the loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. In SBA, the frequency of MMR deficient (MMRd) tumors varies from 5% to 35%. This study aims to describe the prevalence of LS carriers among patients with MMRd small bowel adenocarcinomas.
Methods: A multicenter retrospective study with identification and MMR testing of all consecutive SBA between 2004 and 2020 in a multicenter Spanish study. Demographical data, tumor characteristics, follow-up and survival information were collected. Germline testing was driven by identification of MMRd tumors.
Results: A total of 94 individuals diagnosed with SBA were recruited. We observed 20 (21.3%) MMRd tumors. In 9/15 (60%) patients with MMRd tumors, a pathogenic variant was identified (three MLH1, four MSH2, one MSH6 and one PMS2). Accordingly, the prevalence of LS among all SBA cases was 10.1%.
Conclusions: More than one-fifth of SBA display MMRd and in more than a half is due to LS. Our data supports the implementation of universal MMR tumor testing among SBA for the identification of LS families.
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) is a common tumor with high morbidity and mortality. Only 7% of patients with GC are diagnosed before age 50 (early onset gastric cancer (EOGC)), and their characteristics have been poorly described. We aimed to describe clinical, molecular, and genetic characteristics of EOGC. A total of 309 patients with EOGC were retrospectively studied in four Spanish centers. Personal information, family history, and tumor information were registered. Germinal genetic analysis was performed in patients who met current criteria of a hereditary syndrome at the time of diagnosis. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years. The majority (73.3%) of tumors were diffuse, and 78.3% were diagnosed in an advanced stage. Familial aggregation of GC was present in 18/117 (15.4%) cases, and 5/117 (4.3%) met criteria for familial GC. MMR-IHC was performed in 126/309 (40.7%) tumors: 4/126 (3.1%) had loss of expression in MLH1/PMS2, without an associated germline mutation. Sixteen germline genetic analyses were performed, detecting a pathogenic variant in four (25%) cases: one in BRCA2, one in TP53, and two in CDH1. Most EOGC are diffuse and diagnosed in an advanced stage. In these patients, DNA MMR system deficiency is uncommon. Although familial aggregation was observed in only 15% of cases, a germline mutation was found in 25% of patients tested with clinical criteria. This demonstrates that EOGC has a marked genetic heterogeneity, reinforcing the importance of an accurate genetic counseling and enhancing the emerging use of multigene panels.
The serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is the most common and yet underdiagnosed colorectal polyposis syndrome. It is characterized by multiple and/or large colonic serrated polyps and a higher associated risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The main objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in the germline predisposition to SPS/CRC. Thirty-nine SPS patients from 16 families (≥2 patients per family) were recruited without alterations in well-known hereditary CRC genes, and germline and somatic whole-exome sequencing were performed. Germline rare variants with plausible pathogenicity, located in genes involved in cancer development, senescence and epigenetic regulation were selected. Somatic mutational profiling and signature analysis was pursued in one sample per family, when possible. After data filtering, ANXA10, ASXL1, CFTR, DOT1L, HIC1, INO80, KLF3, MCM3AP, MCM8, PDLIM2, POLD1, TP53BP1, WNK2 and WRN were highlighted as the more promising candidate genes for SPS germline predisposition with potentially pathogenic variants shared within families. Somatic analysis characterized mutational profiles in advanced serrated polyps/tumors, revealing a high proportion of hypermutated samples, with a prevalence of clock-like mutational signatures in most samples and the presence of DNA mismatch repair-defective signatures in some cases. In conclusion, we identified new candidate genes to be involved in familial SPS. Further functional studies and replication in additional cohorts are required to confirm the selected candidates.
Background: Patients with multiple or large adenomas are considered as high-risk for metachronous colorectal cancer.
Objective: Evaluate the risks of detecting colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma, and advanced serrated polyps at one-year surveillance colonoscopy in patients with > 5 adenomas or adenomas > 20 mm.
Design: Descriptive, retrospective, multicentric, cohort study. We calculated the absolute risk of developing colorectal cancer, advanced adenomas, and advanced serrated polyps at the one-year surveillance colonoscopy. Potential risk factors for advanced neoplasia at follow-up were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
Settings: This study included data from a multicenter cohort colorectal cancer screening program, conducted from January 2014 to December 2015, based on fecal immunochemical tests in Spain.
Patients: We included 2119 participants with at least one adenoma ≥20 mm or ≥5 adenomas of any size.
Main outcome measures: We calculated the absolute risk of developing colorectal cancer, advanced adenomas, and advanced serrated polyps at the one-year surveillance colonoscopy. Potential risk factors for advanced neoplasia at follow-up were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
Results: At one year, participants displayed 6 colorectal cancers (0.3%), 228 advanced adenomas (10.5%), and 58 advanced serrated polyps (2.7%). The adjusted analysis identified two factors associated with advanced neoplasia: >5 adenomas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI: 1.15-2.03; p=0.004) and polyps in a proximal location (odds ratio 1.52; 95% CI: 1.15-2.02; p=0.004).
Limitations: First, the sample size was relatively small compared to other studies with similar aims. Another limitation was the lack of a comparison group, which could have provided more practical results, in terms of surveillance recommendations.
Conclusion: The colorectal cancer detection rate at a one-year colonoscopy surveillance was low among patients classified at high risk of advanced neoplasia. The risk factors for advanced neoplasia were ≥5 adenomas and proximal polyps at baseline.
Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnostic biomarker available. Many population screening programmes are based on this biomarker, with the goal of reducing CRC mortality. Moreover, in recent years, a large amount of evidence has been produced on the use of FIT to detect CRC in patients with abdominal symptoms in primary healthcare as well as in surveillance after adenoma resection. The aim of this review is to highlight the available evidence on these two topics. We will summarize the evidence on diagnostic yield in symptomatic patients with CRC and significant colonic lesion and the different options to use this (thresholds, brands, number of determinations, prediction models and combinations). We will include recommendations on FIT strategies in primary healthcare proposed by regulatory bodies and scientific societies and their potential effects on healthcare resources and CRC prognosis. Finally, we will show information regarding FIT-based surveillance as an alternative to endoscopic surveillance after high-risk polyp resection. To conclude, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, FIT-based strategies have become extremely relevant since they enable a reduction of colonoscopy demand and access to the healthcare system by selecting individuals with the highest risk of CRC.
Background: Although colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs reduce CRC incidence and mortality, they are associated with risks in healthy subjects. However, the risk of overtreatment and overdiagnosis has not been determined yet. The aim of this study was to report the surgery rates in patients with nonmalignant lesions detected within the first round of a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) based CRC screening program and the factors associated with it.
Methods: We included in this analysis all patients with nonmalignant lesions detected between May 2013 and June 2019 in the Galician (Spain) CRC screening program. We calculated surgery rate according to demographic variables, the risk classification according to the colonoscopy findings (European guidelines for quality assurance), the endoscopist's adenoma detection rate (ADR) classified into quartiles and the hospital's complexity level. We determined which variables were independently associated with surgery rate and expressed the association as Odds Ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results: We included 15,707 patients in the analysis with high (19.9%), intermediate (26.9%) low risk (23.3%) adenomas and normal colonoscopy (29.9%) detected in the analyzed period. Colorectal surgery was performed in 162 patients (1.03, 95% CI 0.87-1.19), due to colonoscopy complications (0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.05) and resection of colorectal benign lesions (1.00, 95% CI 0.85-1.16). Median hospital stay was 6 days with 17.3% patients developing minor complications, 7.4% major complications and one death. After discharge, complications developed in 18.4% patients. In benign lesions, an endoscopic resection was performed in 25.4% and a residual premalignant lesion was detected in 89.9%. The variables independently associated with surgery in the multivariable analysis were age (≥60 years = 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23), sex (female = 2.10, 95% CI 1.52-2.91), the European guidelines classification (high risk = 67.94, 95% CI 24.87-185.59; intermediate risk = 5.63, 95% CI 1.89-16.80; low risk = 1.43; 95% CI 0.36-5.75), the endoscopist's ADR (Q4 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.68; Q3 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71; Q2 = 0.71, 95% CI 0.44-1.14) and the hospital (tertiary = 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.79).
Conclusions: In a CRC screening program, the surgery rate and the associated complications in patients with nonmalignant lesions are low, and related to age, sex, endoscopic findings, endoscopist's ADR and the hospital's complexity.
CA19-9 serum has been suggested as a marker of unresectability but different cut-off levels have been published. A cut-off of 500 U/ml is currently considered in an international consensus as biological criteria of borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. To evaluate whether serum CA19-9 threshold of 500 U/ml could be adequate predictor of resectability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multicenter, observational, prospective study performed in Spain including 203 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 43 (21.2%) cases were resectable and 160 (78.8%) unresectable. Among the 176 preoperative CA19-9 available values, 98 (58.3%) were ≤ 500 U/ml and 73 (42.7%) > 500 U/ml. Resectability rate in those patients with CA19-9 ≤ 500 U/ml was 60% while it was found to be 18% when CA19-9 > 500 U/ml. Statistical model to predict resectability based on CA19-9 provide an AUC of 0.6618 (95% CI 0.53-0.83) when only CA19-9 values > 500 U/ml are studied. Serum levels of CA19-9 higher than 500 U/ml are indicative of unresectable disease, however reduced sensitivity and specificity lead to a limited clinical applicability for resectability.
Background & aims: Dye-based pancolonic chromoendoscopy is recommended for colorectal cancer surveillance in patients with Lynch syndrome. However, there is scarce evidence to support its superiority to high-definition white-light endoscopy. We performed a prospective study assess whether in the hands of high detecting colonoscopists, high-definition, white-light endoscopy is noninferior to pancolonic chromoendoscopy for detection of adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.
Methods: We conducted a parallel controlled study, from July 2016 through January 2018 at 14 centers in Spain of adults with pathogenic germline variants in mismatch repair genes (60% women; mean age, 47 ± 14 years) under surveillance. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that underwent high-definition white-light endoscopy (n = 128) or pancolonic chromoendoscopy (n = 128) evaluations by 24 colonoscopists who specialized in detection of colorectal lesions in high-risk patients for colorectal cancer. Adenoma detection rates (defined as the proportion of patients with at least 1 adenoma) were compared between groups, with a noninferiority margin (relative difference) of 15%.
Results: We found an important overlap of confidence intervals (CIs) and no significant difference in adenoma detection rates by pancolonic chromoendoscopy (34.4%; 95% CI 26.4%-43.3%) vs white-light endoscopy (28.1%; 95% CI 21.1%-36.4%; P = .28). However, pancolonic chromoendoscopy detected serrated lesions in a significantly higher proportion of patients (37.5%; 95% CI 29.5-46.1) than white-light endoscopy (23.4%; 95% CI 16.9-31.4; P = .01). However, there were no significant differences between groups in proportions of patients found to have serrated lesions of 5 mm or larger (9.4% vs 7.0%; P = .49), of proximal location (11.7% vs 10.2%; P = .68), or sessile serrated lesions (3.9% vs 5.5%; P = .55), respectively. Total procedure and withdrawal times with pancolonic chromoendoscopy (30.7 ± 12.8 minutes and 18.3 ± 7.6 minutes, respectively) were significantly longer than with white-light endoscopy (22.4 ± 8.7 minutes and 13.5 ± 5.6 minutes; P < .001).
Conclusions: In a randomized parallel trial, we found that for Lynch syndrome surveillance, high-definition white-light endoscopy is not inferior to pancolonic chromoendoscopy if performed by experienced and dedicated endoscopists. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02951390.
The identification of high-risk groups of gastric (GC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) due to a hereditary basis could imply a benefit in the affected families by establishing personalized preventive strategies. We aimed at assessing the diagnostic yield of GC/PC hereditary syndromes in individuals evaluated based on specific clinical criteria. In total, 77 unrelated individuals (45 from GC group/32 from PC group) were recruited: 51 (66.2%) cancer diagnosis ≤60 years, 3 (4%) with personal history of GC/PC and other cancer and 23 (29.8%) due to family history. Immunohistochemical analysis of DNA mismatch repair proteins was performed in 38 (49.3%) available tumors, being pathological in one (2%) GC. A genetic analysis was performed if clinical criteria of hereditary syndrome were fulfilled, identifying a mutation in 10/22 (45.5%) families [7/16 (43.7%) with GC and 3/6 (50%) with PC] and 19 (24.7%) fulfilled criteria of familial cancer. Diagnosis of cancer <40 years and personal history of other cancers were independent risk factors of a hereditary syndrome [OR:11.3 (95%IC 1.9-67); p = 0.007 and OR:17.4 (95% IC 2.5-119.9); p = 0.004; respectively]. The selection of patients based on clinical criteria leads to high diagnostic yield, detecting a causative germline mutation in almost half of the cases; therefore, both meticulous genetic counseling and use of multi-gen panels is crucial.
There is limited scientific evidence available to stratify the risk of developing metachronous colorectal cancer after resection of colonic polyps and to determine surveillance intervals and is mostly based on observational studies. However, while awaiting further evidence, the criteria of endoscopic follow-up needs to be unified in our setting. Therefore, the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology, the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, the Spanish Society of Digestive Endoscopy, and the Colorectal Cancer Screening Group of the Spanish Society of Epidemiology, have written this consensus document, which is included in chapter 10 of the "Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. 2018 Update". Important developments will also be presented as regards the previous edition published in 2009. First of all, situations that require and do not require endoscopic surveillance are established, and the need of endoscopic surveillance of individuals who do not present a special risk of metachronous colon cancer is eliminated. Secondly, endoscopic surveillance recommendations are established in individuals with serrated polyps. Finally, unlike the previous edition, endoscopic surveillance recommendations are given in patients operated on for colorectal cancer. At the same time, it represents an advance on the European guideline for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening, since it eliminates the division between intermediate risk group and high risk group, which means the elimination of a considerable proportion of colonoscopies of early surveillance. Finally, clear recommendations are given on the absence of need for follow-up in the low risk group, for which the European guidelines maintained some ambiguity.
Evidence-based guidelines on the management of pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN) are lacking. This guideline is a joint initiative of the European Study Group on Cystic Tumours of the Pancreas, United European Gastroenterology, European Pancreatic Club, European-African Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, European Digestive Surgery, and the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. It replaces the 2013 European consensus statement guidelines on PCN. European and non-European experts performed systematic reviews and used GRADE methodology to answer relevant clinical questions on nine topics (biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), serous cystic neoplasm, rare cysts, (neo)adjuvant treatment, and pathology). Recommendations include conservative management, relative and absolute indications for surgery. A conservative approach is recommended for asymptomatic MCN and IPMN measuring <40 mm without an enhancing nodule. Relative indications for surgery in IPMN include a main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter between 5 and 9.9 mm or a cyst diameter ≥40 mm. Absolute indications for surgery in IPMN, due to the high-risk of malignant transformation, include jaundice, an enhancing mural nodule >5 mm, and MPD diameter >10 mm. Lifelong follow-up of IPMN is recommended in patients who are fit for surgery. The European evidence-based guidelines on PCN aim to improve the diagnosis and management of PCN.
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